
Introduction  3  
General Information  4  
The Calculating Sections  4  
The Keyboard and Other Controls  6  
The Carriage  9  
Operating Instructions  
Setting the Machine to a Form  10  
Using Roll Paper  11  
Clearing the Machine  11  
Addition:  
Single Column Addition  11  
Transferring from one Section to Another  12  
Duplex Addition in one Column  12  
Duplex Addition in Three Columns  13  
Duplex Addition in Four Columns  14  
Printing and Adding Fractions  15  
Subtraction:  
Subtraction in Crossfooter  15  
Subtraction in Registers  16  
Listing Debits and Credits and Obtaining Difference  16  
Multiplication  17  
Division  17  
Fundamental Billing Operations  
Writing and Computing an Invoice  18  
Use of the Full Cent Bar  19  
Fractions in the Price Which Can be Printed  
with the Calculating Mechanism  19  
Use of the PointOff Key  20  
Fractions in the Quantity  20  
Table of Decimal Equivalents of Common Fractions  21  
Fractions in the Price Which Cannot be Printed  
with the Calculating Mechanism  22  
Calculating Discounts  23  
Use of the Decimal Discount Key  23  
Chain Discounts  24  
Table of Chain Discounts  25  
Adding QuantityCalculating Freight  26  
Rules for Correcting Operating Errors  27  
Special Billing Problems  
Quantity Larger than the Price and Extra  
Charges Added to the Total  28  
Both Discount and Net Shown  29  
Quantity in Units  Priced per Hundred  30  
Quantity in Units  Priced per Thousand  30  
Plus Percentage and Deductions from the Net  30  
Quantity in Units  Priced per Dozen  31  
Quantity in Dozens  Priced per Unit  31  
Quantity in Units  Priced per Gross  31  
Quantity in Pounds  Priced per Ton  32  
Calculating Net Weight  32  
Calculating Long Tons  Quantity in Pounds  32  
Quantity in Feet and Inches  Priced per Foot  33  
Table of Inches and Fractional Inches as Decimals of One Foot  33  
Calculating Lumber  Priced per Board Foot  34  
Lumber Table  35  
Calculating Surface  Priced per Square Foot  36  
Calculating Surface and Weight  Priced per Hundred Pounds  36  
Calculating Lineal Feet and Weight  Priced per Hundred Pounds  37  
Calculating Weight of Paper  Priced per Pound  Quantity in Sheets  37  
Calculating Interest  38  
Interest Table  38  
Calculating Bushels  Priced per Bushel  Quantity in Pounds  39  
Table of Reciprocals for Bushels  39  
Additional Features  
Transfer to Register from First Product Key  40  
Clear Multiplier Key  40  
Simultaneous Addition  40  
Positive Register Control  40  
Automatic Extension  40  
Overdraft Light Signal  40  
Other Styles of Billing Machines  40 
The Burroughs ComputingBilling Machine has several departments which are so coordinated that they form one complete, compact, versatile billing machine.
There are five sections in the Calculating unit of the standard machine,
namely: the Multiplier
The MultiplierSubtractor  The Multiplier
Amounts are indexed in the MultiplierSubtractor by setting up the figures on
the Red keys and depressing the Extend key and the Motor Bar. An
amount in a Register may be indexed in the MultiplierSubtractor by depressing
the Register Total and Extend keys, then the Motor Bar.
The Crossfooter  The Crossfooter may be used for adding
horizontally or vertically. The results of multiplying or subtracting enter
directly into this section of the machine. The answer, whether of addition,
subtraction or multiplication, may be printed by the use of one of the Product
keys.
Amounts are added in the Crossfooter by setting up the figures on the
Red keys and holding the Add Crossfooter key depressed while operating the
Motor Bar. An amount in a Register may be added in the Crossfooter by
depressing the Register Total key and holding down the Add Crossfooter
key while the Motor Bar is operated.
The MultiplierSubtractor and the Crossfooter are always in active position.
The Accumulating Registers  The three Registers are used for
adding figures set up on the Red keys or for accumulating amounts which are
automatically transferred from the Crossfooter.
The Register Total key is used for totaling any Register.
An amount set up on the Red keys adds in the active Register when the
Motor Bar is operated, unless the Add Crossfooter, Extend or Nonadd key has
also been depressed.
An amount in the Crossfooter may be transferred to the active Register
by depressing the Final Product key and the Motor Bar.
CapacitiesThe largest amount that can be entered in the machine
and the largest total that may be printed is
1. Tabulate Bar  Depressing this bar causes the carriage to
tabulate to the next stop position.
2. Subtract Key  Subtraction is performed by this key. The larger
amount is added in the Crossfooter by setting it up on the Red keys and holding
down the Add Crossfooter key while operating the Motor Bar. The amount to be
subtracted is indexed in the (Multiplier)Subtractor by setting it up on the
Red keys, depressing the Extend key and the Motor Bar. The Subtract key is
then operated. Depressing the Final Product key and the Motor Bar prints the
difference and transfers it to the active Register.
An amount may be subtracted from the active Register by indexing it in the
(Multiplier)Subtractor, operating the Subtract key, then depressing the Final
Product key and operating the Motor Bar. The NonPrint key should be held down
while the Motor Bar is operated.
3. Register Total Key  This key is the total key for any
Register. Depressing this key and operating the Motor Bar prints the amount
and clears the active Register.
If the Register Total key is held down while the Motor Bar is operated, and
then restored with the Error key, it acts as a SubTotal key for the
Register, printing the amount but not clearing the register.
Depressing the Register Total and Extend keys together and then operating the
Motor Bar, clears the active Register, prints the amount and indexes it in the
MultiplierSubtractor.
Depressing the Register Total key and holding down the Add Crossfooter key
while the Motor Bar is operated, clears the active Register, prints the amount
and transfers it to the Crossfooter.
4. Extend Key  To index an amount in the
MultiplierSubtractor, the amount is set up on the Red keys, the Extend key is
depressed and the Motor Bar is operated. The amount thus indexed in the
MultiplierSubtractor may be subtracted from an amount in the Crossfooter by
depressing the Subtract key, or the amount indexed may be multiplied by
another amount by using the Multiplying keys.
A second amount cannot be indexed in the MultiplierSubtractor until
the first amount has been cleared out by depressing the Final Product key and
the Motor Bar. The Extend key is locked if the MultiplierSubtractor is not
clear.
An amount may he added in the active Register at the same time it is
indexed in the Multiplier Subtractor if the machine is set to "Add on Extend."
(See paragraph 34.)
By depressing the Register Total and Extend keys together, and
operating the Motor Bar the active Register is cleared, the amount is printed
and at the same time is indexed in the MultiplierSubtractor.
The Extend key should never be held down while the Motor Bar is
operated. If held down the amount will not be indexed in the
MultiplierSubtractor.
5. FractionAdd Crossfooter Key  This key has three separate uses:
6. NonAdd Key(small steel key behind FractionAdd Crossfooter key)  An amount set up on the Red keys may be printed without adding in any of the registers. This is done by holding down the NonAdd key in conjunction with the Add Crossfooter key while operating the Motor Bar.
7. First Product Key  This is the total key for the
Crossfooter. It does not transfer the amount to the Register, and does not
clear the Multiplier
In case the machine is equipped with the optional feature "Add on
First Product," this key functions as a Transfer Total key, transferring the
amount from the Crossfooter to the active register. It does not clear the
MultiplierSubtractor, however.
8. Final Product Key  This key clears the
MultiplierSubtractor and the Crossfooter, prints the amount which is in
the Crossfooter, and transfers it to the active Register.
If this key is held down while the Motor Bar is operated, it clears
the MultiplierSubtractor, prints but retains the amount in the Crossfooter,
and transfers the amount to the active Register. The Final Product key is
then restored with the Error key. This is called a subtransfer total of the
Crossfooter.
9. Shift KeyNonPrint This key has two functions when depressed:
10. Shift Lock  This key locks the Shift key in a depressed position. Touching the Shift key releases it.
11. Margin Key Lock  The Margin Release key, when depressed, remains down until restored by depression of the Margin Key Lock.
12. Ribbon Shift Key  This key is used to shift the ribbon from black to red.
13. Ribbon Shift Lock  The Ribbon Shift key may be locked into shift position with this button.
14. Margin Release Key  When it is desired to print to the left of the usual margin, depressing the Margin Release key releases the Releasable Margin Block and permits the carriage to pass the Releasable Margin Block until stopped by the Margin Block.
15. Typewriter Keyboard  The typewriter is used for writing headings, description and other data.
16. Register Trip Key  Registers No. 2 and No. 3 may be tripped into active position by pressing this key. (See pages 4 and 5.)
17. Register Indicator The position of the pointer indicates which one of the three Registers is in active position.
18. Back Spacer  Depressing this key moves the carriage one space to the right.
19. Pointoff Key  When the factors in a multiplication contain decimals, each depression of this key moves the decimal point in the answer one place to the left. The maximum of places that can be pointed off is the same as the number ot Multiplying keys which have been depressed in multiplying.
20. Decimaldiscount Key  One depression of this key points off as many places as there were Multiplying keys depressed. It is always used to point off after multiplying by a discount or a decimal which does not have a whole number preceding the decimal point.
21. Line Key  One stroke of this key prints a line five spaces long. It is used immediately before printing the total under a column of figures.
22. Carriage Return Key  Depressing this key causes the carriage to return to the starting point and automatically space up the paper to the next writing line.
23. Typewriter Space Bar  This is used for moving the carriage one space to the left.
24. The Red Keys  These keys are used for setting up amounts to be added either in the Crossfooter or in one of the Registers. They are also used in conjunction with the Extend key for indexing amounts in the MultiplierSubtractor.
25. Multiplying Keys  After one factor is indexed for multiplication (Red keysExtend key), the Multiplying keys are depressed for the other factor. The machine automatically enters the result of the multiplication into the Crossfooter.
26. Space Motor Bar  Depressing this bar operates the machine and spaces the paper. If the machine does not have this bar, spacing from the regular motor bar is obtained by turning up the vertical adding machine space lever.
27. Motor Bar  Depressing the Motor Bar causes the machine to operate but does not space the paper.
28. Error Key  An amount set up on the Red keys in error may be cancelled before operating the Motor Bar by using the Error key. The Error key will also restore the Extend, First Product, Final Product, or Register Total key.
29. Full Cent Bar  If the result of a multiplication contains a
fraction of a cent amounting to five mills or more, depressing the Full Cent
bar increases the fraction to a whole figure. If the result of a
multiplication contains a fraction of less than five mills, depressing the
Full Cent bar has no effect on the result. This bar should be used after a
multiplication involving a fraction in the quantity or the price, or whenever
the Pointoff or Decimaldiscount key is depressed.
The Full Cent bar should never be used when the result is to be printed with
Register No. 1 in active position as fractions print and add when that
register is active.
Controls on Left Side of Machine 
30. Spacing Pawl  See paragraph 31.
31. Carriage Return Spacing Cams  When the carriage returns by
the depression of the Carriage Return key, the paper automatically spaces
up. This is caused by the spacing pawl (30) passing over
the spacing cams. Double spacing is obtained when both spacing cams are
turned up. If only single spacing is required, one cam is turned down, as in
the illustration.
In order to space automatically, it is necessary for the carriage to travel
far enough to permit the pawl to pass the spacing cams.
32. Vertical Adding Machine Space Lever  See paragraph 26.
33. Ribbon Adjustment  After a portion of the ribbon becomes worn, it may be shifted with this adjustment so that the entire width of the ribbon may he utilized.
34. Nonadd and Add on Extend  This lever, located on the left side of the machine, is usually set for "Nonadd on Extend." If it is desired to accumulate a total of amounts as they are indexed in the MultiplierSubtractor, the lever should be set to "Add on Extend." When this is done, amounts indexed in the MultiplierSubtractor from the Red keys add in the active Register. If the lever is set to "Add on Extend" and it is desired to nonadd an amount indexed in the MultiplierSubtractor, the Nonadd key must be held down while the Motor Bar is operated. (See paragraph 6.)
1. Paper Release  Depressing the rear Paper Release lever releases the pressure rolls so that the paper can be adjusted. The front lever, when depressed alone, locks the Paper Release mechanism in released position. To unlock, the rear lever must be pressed.
2. Margin Block  The Margin Block is generally used in invoicing to stop the carriage at the left margin. The carriage cannot pass the Margin Block.
3. Releasable Margin Block  This block is used to stop the carriage at the left margin. Depressing the Margin Release key permits the carriage to pass the Releasable Margin Block until stopped by the Margin Block (2). The Margin Release key is locked in active position until released by depressing the Margin Key Lock key. The Releasable Margin Block is inoperative when the small lever at the front of it is depressed and latched in position. On some machines it is made inoperative by raising and turning a knurled knob at the top of the block. The Releasable Margin Block should be set (gauging from its right side) four spaces to the right of the position desired, as indicated on the Front Scale (1213).
4. Tabulator Stops  These can be set to stop the carriage at any point when it is tabulated. The scale on the tabulator stop bar corresponds with the Front Scale (12).
5. Register Trip Pawl  See Register Trips (6).
6. Register Trips  When a Register Trip strikes the Register Trip Pawl (5) as the carriage tabulates, the next Register, No. 2 or No. 3, is automatically shifted into active position.
7. Control Bar  On this bar are located the Margin Block, the Releasable Margin Block, and the Register Trips.
8. Adding Machine Space Control  The position of this control determines whether the Platen spaces up one or two spaces when the Space Motor Bar is operated. If it is pushed in, as in the illustration, the Platen turns up one space. When it is pulled out, the Platen turns up two spaces.
9. Carriage Release  Depressing this lever permits free movement of the carriage by hand.
10. Platen Lift  This is used for raising or lowering the platen.
11. Paper Fingers  These fingers hold the paper smoothly against the Platen. They are movable for different widths of paper. Small pointers on the sides of the paper fingers indicate the position of the writing line.
1213. Front Scale and Pointers  This scale corresponds to a scale under the Platen (not illustrated) and with the scale on the Tabulator Stop Bar. The righthand Pointer (13) indicates the typewriter printing position; the lefthand Pointer indicates the printing position of the units of cents of the calculating mechanism.
14. Platen  This provides a writing surface.
15. Platen Space Lever  This may be used to return the carriage to the right, by hand, at the same time spacing up the paper either one or two spaces, according to the position of the Typewriter Space Control (16). The Carriage Return key eliminates the necessity of using the Platen Space Lever after completing a line of invoicing.
16. Typewriter Space Control  The position of this control determines whether the platen spaces up one or two spaces when the Platen Space Lever (15) is used. When it is rearward as in the illustration the Platen turns up one space; when forward the Platen turns up two spaces.
17. Variable Line Spacer  By pulling out the Variable Line Spacer, the Platen may be turned a fraction of a regular space.
There are numerous additional features with which the Burroughs Computing Machine may be equipped for efficiently handling special types of figure problems involving multiplication. The following are a few of the most commonly used features which affect the operating instructions in this book: